March 12 2014 Latest news:
Friday, January 31, 2014
It may be 69 years since an unimaginable evil crept over Europe but time has failed to temper its impact.
January: Hitler becomes chancellor
April: boycott of Jewish-owned shops
Hitler orders that anyone with a mental or physical disability must be sterilised
September: it is made unlawful for Jews to marry non-Jews and they are no longer German citizens
November: Night of Broken Glass – riots targeting Jews breaks out in Nazi Germany
September: Second World War starts
June: Germany invades Soviet Russia
Death camps open in Poland
June: Jews in countries including France, Holland and Belgium are ordered to wear yellow stars
May: unconditional surrender of Germany
The ghastly details strike like a hammer-blow to the stomach. Hitler ordered the mass extermination of the Jewish people during the Second World War; he succeed in wiping out six million. Named, with cold euphemism, as the “final solution” by the Nazis, we remember it today as the Holocaust. Here, Amanda Nunn looks at one of history’s darkest moments and talks to one of its few survivors, as we collectively remember all those who have died in genocide since.
On a freezing morning in November 1939, all the Jews in a small Polish town were ordered to assemble in the school. The 2,300 men, women and children from Ozorkow were then told to strip naked and were stamped on their chests with either the letter A or B.
Bob Obuchowski was 11 and, together with one of his sisters, and 200 others, was given the letter A. Bob said: “Being so young we were making jokes about being either an A or B, then they took the babies and threw them into a lorry from the second floor window. We didn’t joke anymore.”
Everyone given the letter B, including his mother, father and remaining sister, were then herded into lorries and gassed to death.
Monday was National Holocaust Memorial Day which remembers the millions slaughtered by the Nazi regime.
The date coincides with the liberation of the Auschwitz concentration camp by the Soviet Union in 1945.
On Wednesday, Bob spoke at Upminster Library, Corbets Tey Road, Upminster, to an enrapt audience about his horrific experiences.
“My sister Malka had a red mark under her eye and that was enough to kill her,” said Bob. “When we looked at the people who were left we knew it didn’t mean good, it was young people like myself and fit people.”
After the initial sorting in Ozorkow the survivors were marched to a ghetto in Lodz.
Ghettos were sections of towns fenced off with soldiers stationed around the perimeter.
Inside, captives had to use a different type of money, were forced to live in cramped conditions and were kept close to starvation.
“If they saw anyone ill they took them away,” said Bob. “I got meningitis, which rotted a chunk out of my leg. My sister had to work or we wouldn’t get her rations. You were given food for three days but it had to last you eight. People were just dying from starvation.
“They ripped up the floor boards and burned furniture to make fire as it was minus 35C.”
About 75,000 people lived in the ghetto in Lodz, which had its own SS building. People who entered it would never be seen again.
Bob said: “You could see people just lying down and dying, some people ate grass and got dysentery.
“You could put the most precious jewels on the table, but the food you had to lock away in case your mother or brother ate it. A bite was a day’s life.
“When someone died they hid the body for a while so they could get their rations. We weren’t human anymore.”
Bob stayed in Lodz for more than three years until the ghetto was closed and its inhabitants were loaded into cattle trains destined for Auschwitz-Birkenau.
Once off the train they were stripped naked and inspected again. This would be the last time he saw his sister Gittol.
Bob had a large dent in his leg as a result of the meningitis and if this had been spotted he would have been executed.
Then came what he describes as “miracles”.
“The boys standing near me moved closer, hiding my scar,” he said. “It was down to the miracles that I survived.”
Out of the hundreds of people, Bob was chosen along with 24 other boys to survive. “We were moved to one side and on the other people were marching to the gas chambers,” he said.
He was then branded with a number on his arm, B-7650, and marched to Auschwitz-Birkenau. He said: “A few blocks from my own they were shooting people morning, noon and night. More than 20,000 people were shot – my ears were ringing all the time from the noise.”
At the beginning of 1945, the war started coming to and end and 2,775 survivors were rounded up and marched to Czechoslovakia to be gassed.
“They didn’t want to leave people like me as evidence so they built two big gas chambers in Czechoslovakia and gathered people from all the camps,” said Bob. In temperatures of minus 30C, only 75 people managed to survive.
On May 8, 1945, the group was found by the Russians.
The British government then announced it wanted to bring 1,000 of the surviving children to the UK. They could only find 700 of which Bob was one.
At 22 he married Marie, another Holocaust survivor and they went on to have two children, five grandchildren and two great-grandchildren.
Although in his 80s, he spends most of his time travelling to schools telling them his story. “I try and teach the young people that bullying and starting on others cannot be right and they should always help and defend people,” he said.
“If you see someone being bullied you must go and try and help them, regardless of who they are.”