Heritage: The day the Romford Bank collapsed

PUBLISHED: 15:00 13 January 2018

The north side of Romford Market in about 1900. Picture: Brian Evans

The north side of Romford Market in about 1900. Picture: Brian Evans

Brian Evans

A tale of incompetence, selfishness and denial – Prof Ged Martin looks at what happened to the town’s financial institution

What really angered people was that their local bank closed its doors on a Thursday.

For 597 years, Wednesday had been market day in Romford.

As usual, on June 5, 1844, unsuspecting traders and cattle dealers had deposited their cash.

The Romford Bank also issued its own notes. Technically, banknotes are IOUs for real cash: “I promise to pay the bearer on demand”.

Local farmers went home not knowing they had worthless paper in their wallets.

Somebody must have known the Romford Bank wasn’t going to open the next day.

It wasn’t Romford’s first financial crisis. Surridge and Joyner’s Romford Agricultural Bank had collapsed in 1826.

It wasn’t encouraging that Surridge became manager of the successor institution.

The new boss was Thomas Johnson, senior, but the brains came from his son and namesake.

The elder Johnson was a partner in an Aldgate oil business. Forget Texan millionaires: this was a steady trade selling whale oil for lamps.

It was profitable, but Johnson’s capital was smaller than people thought, because he was buying out a previous owner by instalments.

His smart son married a rich bride in 1831, and withdrew from the bank.

This left the 65-year-old father juggling three businesses.

The third, a white lead mill in Southwark – making paint and putty – was losing money.

Over the years, Johnson senior diverted over £8,000 from the Romford Bank to support his white lead business.

He’d also served as Lord Mayor of London in 1840. Lord Mayors were expected to spend freely. Johnson drew several thousand pounds from the Romford Bank to make a splash.

Nearly eighty in 1844, Johnson was infirm, deaf and nearly blind.

Most of his time was spent in his Aldgate and Southwark ventures.

He visited Romford on Wednesdays, but mainly shook hands with customers, saying: “How do you do? This is a fine day.”

In 1843, he tried to head-hunt a new manager, a clerk in a rival bank called Burness. But Johnson obstructed Burness’s attempts to examine the accounts.

When he finally saw the books, Burness was aghast to discover that the Romford Bank was carrying an impossible £31,000 deficit.

In denial, Johnson disputed the calculation, claiming that his Aldgate business could cushion any loss.

In the bankruptcy hearings that followed, a clerk called Copley gave evidence. He’d worked for the Romford Bank for four years, and claimed he’d realised within three months that it was bust.

But bank clerks were bound to confidentiality. Whistle-blowing was not encouraged.

Amazingly, the Romford Bank had just £23, 5 shillings and sixpence (£23.27p) on deposit with the Bank of England. Central banking did not extend to regulation, and no alarm bells rang.

Sadly, Johnson had persuaded his Aldgate business partner Charles Mann to join him in the Romford Bank, promising him easy profits.

“I was never at the bank; I knew nothing about banking affairs; I never saw an account of any sort,” Mann admitted.

Charles Mann had ignored a basic business rule: avoid any deal that sounds too good to be true. “I now stand before the world a ruined man.” He was 71, and lost everything he’d worked for.

Harvey George, a Romford auctioneer, reckoned he’d lost £3,000 in the disaster. Accusing Johnson of submitting fake accounts, he blocked his release from bankruptcy in 1845.

Johnson complained this prevented him from claiming a City of London pension as a destitute alderman, because bankrupts were ineligible.

He showed no sympathy for the Bank’s victims.

In 1844 Parliament passed a major Banking Act, the work of Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel. It effectively gave the Bank of England the monopoly of issuing banknotes in England. Banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland still issue their own notes.

It’s astonishing that Johnson’s Romford Bank was run in such a reckless, selfish way. That couldn’t happen today, could it?

Related articles


Welcome , please leave your message below.

Optional - JPG files only
Optional - MP3 files only
Optional - 3GP, AVI, MOV, MPG or WMV files

Please log in to leave a comment and share your views with other Romford Recorder visitors.

We enable people to post comments with the aim of encouraging open debate.

Only people who register and sign up to our terms and conditions can post comments. These terms and conditions explain our house rules and legal guidelines.

Comments are not edited by Romford Recorder staff prior to publication but may be automatically filtered.

If you have a complaint about a comment please contact us by clicking on the Report This Comment button next to the comment.

Not a member yet?

Register to create your own unique Romford Recorder account for free.

Signing up is free, quick and easy and offers you the chance to add comments, personalise the site with local information picked just for you, and more.

Sign up now

Latest Romford News Stories


Volunteers at an Upminster community centre that has been regularly vandalised were delighted when a local business offered to install free CCTV.

Yesterday, 22:27

A two-year-old boy is in hospital with life-threatening injuries after a vehicle collided with pedestrians in Rainham earlier today.

Yesterday, 17:01

A man and a teenager from Romford have been charged following the theft of a Mercedes sports car in Brentwood.

Yesterday, 15:29

London Fire Brigade’s borough commander for Havering Paul Hobbs discussed firefighters’ best resources, new technology and his role in an exclusive interview with the Recorder.

Yesterday, 12:00

Residents are invited to wear their best neon, colourful outfits for two 1980s themed nights organised by a Hornchurch charity.

Yesterday, 10:16

A police officer raped a 16-year-old student twice while they were on a date in Romford, a court has heard.

Yesterday, 07:00

A top cop has vowed not to take his foot off the gas in a battle against burglaries after declaring a recent crime wave “under control”.

Mon, 18:10

Sky customers in Romford have been warned that they will be without internet for eight hours tonight.


There are many reasons people decide to join a gym. Some want to pack on muscle for strength, train for endurance, or lose weight. But did you know it also does wonders for your mental health? Two members at Romford’s Better Gym in the Market Place talk about their personal fitness journey and the importance of replacing bad habits with good ones.

Sean Watson, director at the family-run St Michaels Homes which runs Howard Lodge and Dudbrook Hall, answers the common questions people have about care homes.

NC Construction Services Ltd, based in Hornchurch, Essex, is branching out into residential home improvements and refurbishments after many years working in the commercial sector, in direct response to potential clients looking to add space and value to their property.

Newsletter Sign Up

Sign up to receive our regular email newsletter

Most read news

Show Job Lists

News from your area


Having a brand new kitchen is something that lots of people want but can only dream of. Sadly keeping up to date and making our living spaces as nice as they can be is a costly and incredibly stressful business. Even a fresh coat of paint makes all the difference but isn’t easy or quick.

Who wouldn’t love the chance to go on a shopping spree. Imagine being able to walk into a shop and choose whatever your heart desires without having to worry about how much it costs.

Digital Edition


Enjoy the
Romford Recorder
e-edition today


Education and Training


Read the
Education and Training
e-edition today

Read Now